Write your message
Summer and Fall 2021                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


1- Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University
Abstract:   (854 Views)
Offshore oil and gas extraction structures at shallow waters are conventionally supported by long driven steel pipe piles. In recent years, the direct CPT- or CPTu-based pile design methods have broadly been used to predict the bearing capacity of offshore piles in a more reliable manner. On the other hand, previous investigations have shown that the pile capacity is time-dependent (set-up and relaxation phenomena). However, time effects are missing in most CPT- or CPTu-based prediction methods. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the axial compressive bearing capacity of the offshore steel pipe piles driven in the marine clay deposits of the Persian Gulf based on some popular CPT/CPTu as well as static -based prediction methods. The estimated results are compared with the measured capacities obtained from the Pile Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) and the Case Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP). The measured values have been recorded at End-Of-Drive (EOD) and Beginning-Of-Restrike (BOR) conditions periodically up to nine months after pile installation. Then, the most reliable bearing capacity prediction methods are determined based on the shaft, base, and ultimate capacity values in short, medium, and long-term conditions. Here, five open-ended long steel pipe piles driven into very soft to hard marine clays of the Persian Gulf, Iran are considered to verify and evaluate the prediction quality of each method. It is shown that the ratio of predicted to measured ultimate bearing capacities obtained from the static analysis methods averagely have around 64% more scattering than the corresponding values obtained from the CPT and CPTu-based methods. The results of the current investigation can be employed in offshore piling projects of the Persian Gulf in which the time constraints of installation do not allow running dynamic load tests at different time intervals.
Full-Text [PDF 1321 kb]   (297 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Paper | Subject: Offshore Structure
Received: 2021/06/22 | Accepted: 2022/01/2

References
1. Bullock, P.J., Schmertmann, J.H., McVay, M.C. and Townsend, F.C., "Side shear setup. I: Test piles driven in Florida", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131(3), pp. 301-310, Mar 2005. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:3(301)]
2. Bullock, P.J., Schmertmann, J.H., McVay, M.C. and Townsend, F.C., "Side shear setup. II: Results from Florida test piles", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131(3), pp. 301-310, Mar 2005. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:3(301)]
3. Long, J. H., Kerrigan, J. A., and Wysockey, M. H. "Measured time effects for axial capacity of driven piling", Journal of Transportation Research Record 1663, pp. 57-63, 1999. [DOI:10.3141/1663-08]
4. Tavenas, F., and Audy, R., "Limitations of the driving formulas for predicting bearing capacities of piles in sand", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 9(1), pp. 47-62, Feb 1972. [DOI:10.1139/t72-004]
5. Samson, L., and Authier, J., "Change in pile capacity with time: Case histories", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 23(2), pp. 174-180, May 1986. [DOI:10.1139/t86-027]
6. Zhang, M.Y., Liu, J.W., and Yu, X.X., "Field test study of time effect on ultimate bearing capacity of jacked pipe pile in soft clay", Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 30(10), pp. 3005 3008, 2009.
7. Abu-Farsakh, M., Rosti, F., and Souri, A. "Evaluating pile installation and subsequent thixotropic and consolidation effects on setup by numerical simulation for full-scale pile load tests", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 52(11), pp. 1734-1746, 2015. [DOI:10.1139/cgj-2014-0470]
8. Komurka, V.E., Wagner, A.B. and Edil, T.B., "Estimating soil/pile set-up", Wisconsin Highway Research Program, Madison, WI, USA, Sep 2003.
9. Skov, R. a., and Denver, H., "Time-dependence of bearing capacity of piles", in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 25-27, May 1988.
10. Axelsson, G., Long-term set-up of driven piles in sand, Institutionen för anläggning och miljö, Doctoral Thesis, 2000.
11. Long, J.H., Bozkurt, D., Kerrigan, J.A., and Wysockey, M.H., "Value of methods for predicting axial pile capacity", Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1663(1), pp. 57-63, 1999. [DOI:10.3141/1663-08]
12. Camp III, W.M., and Parmar, H.S., "Characterization of pile capacity with time in the cooper marl: study of application of a past approach to predict long-term pile capacity", Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1663(1), pp.16-24, 1999. [DOI:10.3141/1663-03]
13. Soderberg, L.O., "Consolidation theory applied to foundation pile time effects", Geotechnique, Vol. 11(3), pp. 217-225, Sep 1962. [DOI:10.1680/geot.1962.12.3.217]
14. Randolph, M.F., "Science and empiricism in pile foundation design", Geotechnique, Vol. 53(10), pp. 847-875, 2003. [DOI:10.1680/geot.53.10.847.37518]
15. Chow, F.C., Jardine, R.J., Nauroy, J.F. and Brucy, F., "Time-related increases in the shaft capacities of driven piles in sand", Geotechnique, Vol. 47(2), pp. 353-361, 1997. [DOI:10.1680/geot.1997.47.2.353]
16. Randolph, M.F., Carter, J.P., and Wroth, C.P., "Driven piles in clay-the effects of installation and subsequent consolidation", Geotechnique, Vol. 29(4), pp. 361-393, 1979. [DOI:10.1680/geot.1979.29.4.361]
17. Eslami, A., Aflaki, E. and Hosseini, B., "Evaluating CPT and CPTu based pile bearing capacity estimation methods using Urmiyeh Lake Causeway piling records", Scientia Iranica, Vol. 18(5), pp. 1009-1019, 2011. [DOI:10.1016/j.scient.2011.09.003]
18. Ebrahimian, B., Movahed, V., and Nazari, A., "Soil characterisation of South Pars field", Persian Gulf, Environmental Geotechnics, Vol. 1(2), pp. 96-107, 2014. [DOI:10.1680/envgeo.13.00011]
19. Niazi, F.S. and Mayne, P.W., "Cone penetration test based direct methods for evaluating static axial capacity of single piles", Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 31(4), pp. 979-1009, 2013. [DOI:10.1007/s10706-013-9662-2]
20. American Petroleum Institute (API)., "Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms - working stress design, RP2A-WSD", Washington, USA, 2007.
21. Kolk, H. J., and der Velde, E., "A reliable method to determine friction capacity of piles driven into clays", Offshore Technology Conference, Jan 1996. [DOI:10.4043/7993-MS]
22. Karlsrud, K., Clausen, C. J. F., and Aas, P. M., "Bearing capacity of driven piles in clay, the NGI approach", in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics, Vol. 1, pp. 775-782, Sep 2005.
23. Jardine, R., Chow, F., Overy, R., and Standing, J., "ICP design methods for driven piles in sands and clays", Vol. 112, Mar 2005.
24. Aoki, N., and Velloso, D. D. A., "An approximate method to estimate the bearing capacity of piles", in Proceedings of the 5th Pan-American Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 367-376, 1975.
25. Clisby, M. B., Scholtes, R. M., Corey, M. W., Cole, H. A., Teng, P., and Webb, J. D., "An evaluation of pile bearing capacities", Final Report, Mississippi State Highway Department, Vol. 1, 1978.
26. Schmertmann, J. H., Guidelines for cone penetration test: performance and design, No. FHWA-TS-78-209. United States. Federal Highway Administration, Jul 1978.
27. De Ruiter, J., and Beringen, F. L., "Pile foundations for large North Sea structures", Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, Vol. 3(3), pp. 267-314, Jan 1979. [DOI:10.1080/10641197909379805]
28. Tumay, M. T., and Fakhroo, M., "Friction pile capacity prediction in cohesive soils using electric quasi-static penetration tests", Interim Research, 1982.
29. Bustamante, M., and Gianeselli, L., "Pile bearing capacity prediction by means of static penetrometer CPT", In Proceedings of the 2nd European symposium on penetration testing, pp. 493-500, May 1982.
30. Price, G., and Wardle, I. F., "A comparison between cone penetration test results and the performance of small diameter instrumented piles in stiff clay", In Proceedings of the 2nd European symposium on penetration testing, Amsterdam, Vol. 2, pp. 775-780, 1982.
31. Eslami, A., and Fellenius, B. H., "Pile capacity by direct CPT and CPTu methods applied to 102 case histories", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 34(6), pp. 886-904, Dec 1997. [DOI:10.1139/t97-056]
32. Niazi, F.S. and Mayne, P.W., "CPTu-based enhanced UniCone method for pile capacity", Engineering Geology, 212, pp. 21-34, Sep 2016. [DOI:10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.07.010]

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
International Journal of Maritime Technology is licensed under a

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.